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ベイカー寮221B/Baker House 221B

パペットホームズ、大河ドラマなどの好きなテレビ番組やラグビーについて書いています。アフィリエイトはやっていません。/Welcome to my blog. I write about some Japanese TV programmes including NHK puppetry and Taiga Drama, Sherlock Holmes and rugby. I don't do affiliate marketing.
ベイカー寮221B/Baker House 221B TOP  >  Sego-don-people

Emperor Meiji

He was born as the second son of Emperor Kōmei in 1852. As his elder brother died right after his birth, he was educated as the heir of his father. His mother Yoshiko was a daughter of NAKAYAMA Tadayasu, an aristocrat who realised the Restoration of Imperial Rule.

He was called Prince Mutsuhito (Sachi-no-miya) before his enthronement. When Emperor Kōmei died, he succeeded him at the age of 14. Then he permitted the overthrowing of the shogunate to SAIGŌ Kichinosuke (Takamori) and ŌKUBO Toshimichi (Ichizō) through IWAKURA Tomomi but it failed because TOKUGAWA Yoshinobu forestalled them by Taisei Hōkan.

However, the Decree of the Restoration of Imperial Rule was promulgated and the new government was established. A few months later Edo Castle surrendered. Then the Imperial Covenant consisting of Five Articles (Gokajō no Goseimon) was issued on the following year.

In 1868, he married ICHIJŌ Haruko (Empress Shōken). On the following year, the capital was transferred to Edo that was renamed Tokyo. The new government tried to reform various systems and he permitted each of them. When the order of cutting topknot was issued, he also had his topknot cut and many men followed his example.

When the government got complicated over Seikanron, he stopped it by the Imperial Sanction and managed to quiet it quiet. Besides he tried to make Japan a constitutional monarchy and reformed education, military system, economics and so on. In his reign, the Constitution of the Empire of Japan was issued and the Imperial Diet was established. He also directed military officers at the Imperial Headquartes (Dai Hon-ei) in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japansese War. 

He was hard himself and loved culture. He made lots of poems and liked riding. He called his wife Empress Haruko and the ladies-in-waiting by their nicknames. And in the wartime, he tried to share his lot with soldiers and didn't use heating equipment but hibachi (brazier) even in winter. And he granted money to establish a social welfare organisation called Saiseikai for the medical treatment of the disadvantaged (*).  

After the Satsuma Rebellion, he was said to have missed Takamori. In 1912, he met his demise from uremia. 

Novembr the 3rd is his birthday and is still celebrated as "Bunka no hi" (Culture Day). The ceremony of awarding the order or the medal to the persons of Cultural Merits at the Imperial Palace on the day.  

In this series, he succeeds his father Emperor Kōmei and moves to Tokyo as a monarch of a modern state. Takamori appeals him to fit changed circumstances and he accepts it.

(*) The organisation became to manage hospitals later and some public hospitals entrust the management to the organisation now. The current president is Prince Fumihito of Akishino. 

The images shows NOMURA Mannojō as Emperor Meiji
(From the official website of "Segodon")

西郷どん明治天皇
[ 2018/11/02 00:00 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

GOTŌ Shōjirō

He was born in 1838 as son of GOTŌ who served Tosa domain. His family is originally from from the family line of GOTŌ Matabei who fought against TOKUGAWA Ieyasu in the Siege of Osaka.

He was a jōshi (upper-class samurai) and he lived with YOSHIDA Tōyō, his uncle-in-law and chief vassal of Tosa domain. He learned from John Manjirō (NAKAHAMA Manjirō) about the foreign countries and was appointed to a magistrate of Hata county, western part of current Kōchi in 1858. This is a part of Tōyō's policies of reforming administration.

However, Tōyō was assassinated by Tosa Kinno‐tō (The royalists' party of Tosa) in 1862. Then he resigned his post and went to Edo to learn navigation, Dutch and English. But the Kinno‐tō was suppressed by Yamauchi Yōdō, former lord of the domain who took up his position. Then he returned to Tosa and executed TAKECHI Hanpeita who led the party. He kept suppressing it and planned economic reform however it didn't go well.

Then he met SAKAMOTO Ryōma who managed Kameyama Shachu (later kaien-tai) though Ryōma participated in Tosa Kinno‐to before. They cooperated each other and he engaged in foreign diplomacy also. In 1867, he helped allying Tosa domain with Satsuma domain and proposed Taisei Hōkan based on the Senchū Hassaku by Ryōma submitted to Yōdō. Then TOKUGAWA Yoshinobu restored the government to the Crown on the 14th of october, 1867. But his comrade Ryoma was killed one month later.

Satsuma and Chōshū disppproved of Tosa domain's participation in the New government army. So the Tosa army led by ITAGAKI (Inui) Taisuke joined it independently. After the Boshin War, became a councilor in the New government but resigned from it because of the argument over Seikanron, the diplomatic policy regarding the relations with Korea. Though having resigned from the post, he submitted the petition for Establishment of Elected Assembly to the government and was appointed to the councilor of the senate in 1875. In 1892, he became the minister of Agriculture and commerce.

In 1868, received a sword by Queen Victoria because he put down the attack to Sir Harry Parkes, British ambassador to Japan. And in 1882, he went to Europe and purchased a bag of Louis Vuitton.

In 1887, he was given the title of count. And three years after the retirement from political life, he died at the age of 60. His daughter Sanae marrried IWASAKI Yanosuke, brother of IWASAKI Yatarō who established Mitsubishi Zaibatsu (combine). He and Yatarō were on intimate terms with each other.
In this series, he meets SAIGŌ Kichinosuke who tries to overthrow the shogunate by arms when he served Tosa domain. But after that, he accepts the idea of SAKAMOTO Ryōma who plans to overthrow the shogunate peacefully by Taisei Hokan. After the Meiji Restoration, he becomes a councilor of the government but opposes ŌKUBO Toshimichi.

The image shows Ryō Segawa as Gotō Shōjiro
(From the official website of "Segodon")

西郷どん後藤象二郎
[ 2018/10/26 22:30 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

SAIGŌ Kikujirō

He was born as a son of SAIGO Kichinosuke and Aikana in 1861. He has a sister called Kikusō, later Kikuko and she married Ōyama Seinosuke, cousin of Kichinosuke.

西郷どん西郷菊次郎(幼少期)
Kikujirō in his childhood (Kairi Jō)

He was took in by Kichinosuke in 1868 and brought up by his wife Ito. In 1870, he accompanied his father to Tokyo and then went to the US to study English on the following year. After he returned to Japan, he studied agriculture. Three years after his return, Kichinosuke rose in rebellion against the government (Satsuma Rebellion, Seinan Sensō). He participated in the rebellion but has a wound in the right leg and he had to have the leg amputated. 

Then  KIRINO Toshiaki (NAKAMURA Hanjirō) made NAGATA Kumakichi who served the Saigō family carry him and he surrendered to his uncle SAIGŌ Jūdō (Saigō Shingo) who joined the Government army as officer. After that his sister Kikuko married and he spent a few years with Aikana in Amami Oshima.

西郷どん西郷菊次郎(青年期)
Kikujirō in his youth (Yūki Imai)

When he was 23 years old, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1888, he went to the US to study again and became an official responsible for court ceremonies in 1891. After the Sino-Japanese war, he worked in Taiwan that was under the rule of Japan after the war.  

In 1904, he became a mayor of Kyoto City and realised installing electric appliances, opening of trams and laying on city-water. In 1911, he resigned from the position and returned to Kagoshima because of the aftereffect of his old wound. He then became the director of a mining museum of the Shimazu clan but could not restore his health and died in 1928 at the age of 67.

In this series, the last chapter unfolds as recollection of Kikujirō (*) who is a mayor of Kyoto City.

(*) In the original work, the Satsuma Rebellion unfolds as his recollection.
(**) Nishida acts Saigō Kichinosuke (Takamori) in "Tobu ga Gotoku" broadcast in 1990. He narrates "Segodon" also.

西郷どん西郷菊次郎
Kikujirō as mayor of Kyoto City (Toshiyuki Nishida**)

[ 2018/10/19 22:45 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

KATSURA Kogorō (KIDO Takayoshi)

He was born in Chōshū domain in 1833. His father was called WADA Masakage, a doctor who served the domain. After the Meiji Restoration, he called himself KIDO Takayoshi. He was adopted by KATSURA Kurobei but as his adopted father and mother died soon, he spent his childhood in his parent's house. He devoted to studies and swordsmanship. Though he was a doctor's son, he put his heart into swordsmanship because he took over the headship of the samurai family by being adopted by Kurobei.

He mastered the skill of swordsmanship at Renpeikan , a dōjō in Edo that instructs Shindō Munen-ryū. He became the head of the dōjō while having studied Western-style military science and ship-building. Besides he learned English at that time. When Commodore Perry's squadron visited Japan, he saw the ships and tried to cooperate with one of his teachers YOSHIDA Shōin tried to stow away to the US but was refused by Shōin who didn't want to trouble him. 

In 1862, he and his comrades as KUSAKA Genzui and SUFU Masanosuke intended to make Japan open to other countries and he selected Ōmura Masujirō for an important position. And the five samurais of the domain was sent to Britain as students secretly (the Choshu Five). Besides Genzui commanded the Chōshū Army in the Shimonoseki Campaign in 1863. Around this time, the aristocrats who were pro-Chōshū were exiled and the domain became to be regarded as dangerous.

西郷どん桂小五郎
Katsura Kogorō, later Kido Takayoshi (Tetsuji Tamayama)

On the following year, a radical party in the domain including Genzui, KIJIMA Matabei advanced to Kyoto and the Kinmon Incident happened at last. After it, he hided himself in Izushi domain and disguised himself as merchant. At that time, the shogunate obtained the Imperial sanction of the first sunjugation of Chōshū but the domain made peace with the shogunate intermediated by SAIGŌ Kichinosuke. And then he could return to Chōshū whose pro-shogunate government was over and then he aimed to overthrow the shogunate.

After his return, he reformed the systems of administration and military. In 1866, The Satcho Alliance was formed. So he bought latest modeled weapons in the name of Satsuma domain because Chōshū domain was the Emperor's enemy and couldn't buy weapons. In June of the same year, the force of the shogunate was beaten by the Chōshū soldiers.

After Taisei Hōkan, he was appointed to the councilor (sangi) and held the posts concerning the political affairs. And he planned to establish the National Diet and legalism, realise national education and so on. He joined the Iwakura Mission and inspected the countries of Europe and the US. After returning to Japan, he opposed ŌKUBO Toshimichi (Ichizō) and resigned from councilor but was recalled to the government.

When the Satsuma rebellion occurred in 1877, he who was in Kyoto intended to join the army but couldn't because of his mental damage. In May, he suffered from brain disease  and stomach trouble also and died on the 26th of May. His last words were 
"Give me a break, Saigō".

Though he was in delicate health in his childhood, he liked getting into mischief.

He was a master swordsman but he preferred escaping from his enemies to fighting against them. That's why he was called "Nige no Kogorō" (Kogorō who tries to escape from his enemy).

He bought a diamond ring for his wife Matsuko in 1877. She was a geisha in Kyoto and helped him get away after the Kinmon Incident. 

In this series, he disguised himself as begger and meets Kichinosuke. After the Kinmon Incident, he appears at IWAKURA Tomomi's house as gambler and is asked to overthrow the shogunate in cooperation with Satsuma by Ōkubo Ichizō. He refuses it but later the Satchō Alliance was formed and the two establish the Meiji Government. However, he has the difficult personality and the relationship between him and Ichizō becomes worse.

西郷どん30刀を抜く桂
Kogorō draws and holds his sword

The images are from the official website of "Segodon".

[ 2018/10/13 23:45 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

ŌMURA Masujirō

He was born in Susenji Village, Suō (southern part of current Yamaguchi) as son of a physician in 1824. He was formerly called MURATA Zōroku and studied Dutch, medicine, Chinese classics, mathematics and calligraphy. 

In 1846, he studied at Teki-juku, a private medicine school established by OGATA Kōan in Osaka and was a leading student of the school. Later he became a medical practitioner in his hometown but was unpopular. At that time his knowledge of Dutch was appreciated and was asked by Uwajima domain to serve its lord, DATE Munenari. After that he went to Nagasaki to study building a steamship and met KUSUMOTO Inē (Inē Siebold) there.

He accompanied the sankin-kōtai of Munenari in 1856 and established his school Kyūkyo-dō in Edo. And then he held the position that needed the knowledge of Dutch and got to know KATSURA Kogorō. After this, he became to serve Chōshu domain and learned English from James Curtis Hepburn. He had the ability of realising everything by reading books only.

西郷どん大村益次郎
Ōmura Masujirō (HAYASHIYA Shōzō) who takes command of the New government army and beats shōgi-tai

In 1863, he returned to Suō and taught Western military science in Hagi, capital of Chōshū domain. He also received the foreign peace envoys after the Shimonoseki Campaign and helped Kihei-tai led by TAKASUGI Shinsaku who broke down the pro-shogunate executives of the domain. After that he was promoted to jōshi (high class samurai) with the recommendation of Kogorō and changed his name into Ōmura Masujirō. Like the organisation of kihei-tai, he called the soldiers from various social status to organise his army. Their salary was paid by the domain.

In the second subjugation of Chōshū, he commanded his army at the battle of Sekishū-guchi and beat the shogunate army by latest style weapons. On the following year, Satsuma domain tries to overthrow the shogunate in earnest but Chōshū domain was deliberated in its action as Satsuma betrayed Chōshū in the Kinmon Incident. So ŌKUBO Ichizo visited Chōshū and persuaded the executives to act with the Satsuma Army. 

After the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, he planned to establish national armed force and commanded the New government army in the Battle of Ueno in 1868. Then he was appointed to the position that was in charge of reforming military system. He was a genius in military affairs and could make an accurate estimate of the expenditures and the numbers of bullets his side would use in the battles.

In September 1869, he and his colleagues were attacked by the assassins who were against his idea in Kyoto. Only he survived and was carried to the residence of Chōshū domain but he had septicemia and was carried to a hospital in Osaka later. Though Anthonius Bauduin, a Dutch doctor operated on him, his septicemia got worse (*) and he died on the 5th of November. His body was buried in his hometown. He left a will that many cannons will be needed to fight against the enemy in the West (**) and his left leg amputated in the operation should be buried near the tomb of Ogata Kōan.

He was a theorist but a blunt man and his behaviour sometimes made others unpleasant or angry. Though he was appreciated by Katsura Kogoro, he opposed former samurais of Satsuma as Ōkubo Ichizō (Toshimichi). 

He was nicknamed "hifuki-daruma" (Dharma who blows a fire). When he was angry, he turned red and pouted his mouth so the appearance looked like a dharma doll that blows fire.

In this series, he appears at the headquarter of the New government army. He says that he can beat shōgi-tai in one day or half a day and realises it. But he becomes to oppose Ōkubo Ichizō (Toshimichi) later.

西郷どん37大村益次郎
Masujirō visits the headquarter of the New government army and meets Saigō Kichinosuke

(*) It needed the Imperial Sanction for the operation at that time and it took time. that's why his illness got worse.
(**) He was said to have anticipated the future, especially the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877.  

The images are from the official website of "Segodon".

[ 2018/10/10 01:30 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

ITŌ Shunsuke (Hirobumi)

In 1842, He was born as a son of ITŌ Naoemon who was an ashigaru, lowest-class samurai of Chōshū domain. When Commodore Perry's squadron visited Japan, he was sent to guard the coast of Edo Bay, current Tokyo Bay. Then he got to know KURUHARA Ryōzō, a samurai who also came from Chōshū and was encouraged to study at Shōkason-juku of YOSHIDA Shōin.

Then he became an attendant of KATSURA Kogorō who stayed in Edo and made friends with INOUE Monta (Kaoru) there. They joined Sonnō Joi movement (supporting royalism and expelling foreigners) with TAKASUGI Shinsaku (*) and KUSAKA Genzui, both of whom were the pupils of Shōin also. However, he changed his policy after going to Britain to study as one of the students (the Chōshū Five) from Japan. But when he learned the bombardment at the Kanmon straits, he returned to Japan with Monta despite having not completed his study. 

He persuaded the executives to open Japan to the foreign countries but in vain. After the shogunate's first subjugation of Chōshu, the domain swore allegiance to the shogunate. But Shinsaku attempted to upset the system with his comrades includes him. And then the alliance with Satsuma (Satchō Alliance) was formed secretly. Thanks to it, the samurais of Chōshū could prepare latest model weapons for the second subjugation of the shogunate and defeated the enemy in 1866.

西郷どん薩長同盟締結時の伊藤俊輔
ITŌ Shunsuke (Kenta Hamano) attending the formation of the Satchō Alliance

After the Meiji Restoration, he changed his name into Hirobumi and hold some important posts of the new government. He joined the Iwakura Mission to inspect the Western countries and became similar with IWAKURA Tomomi and ŌKUBO Toshimichi. He displayed his shrewdness after the deaths of KIDO Takayoshi, SAIGŌ Takamori and ŌKUBO Toshimichi. Then he prepared for the establishment of the constitution and became the first prime minister in 1885. The reason why he from lower class owed his English ability. Then he established Tokyo University and the constitution he prepared was promulgated in 1889.

Before the promulgation, he resigned from PM and was appointed to the Chairman of the Privy Council. But he became PM three times after that and established a political party called Rikken-seiyūkai. He concluded a peace treaty (Shimonoseki Treaty) with Qing after the Sino-Japanese War. Then he tried to appease Russia and was against the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. But when the war broke out, he sent KANEKO Kentarō to the US to ask President Theodore Roosevelt to mediate between two countries.

In 1905, he became the Resident-General of Korea and Japan began ruling Korea in actual then. He was against the annexation of Korea at first but was pressured by other politicians and resigned from his post. He was assassinated by An Jung-geun, an activist for Korean independence in Harbin Railway Station but there is a different view.

He often had parties with the performance by geisha and is warned by Emperor Meiji about it. On the other hand, he took interest in female education.

When he ate puffinfish in Shimonoseki in 1888, he was pleased with it and told the governor of removed the ban on cooking or eating the fish. Eating the fish was sometimes prohibited in Japanese history as some parts of its body are poisoned (**).

In this series, he sees the formation of the Satchō Alliance at the residence of KOMATSU Tatewaki. Then he shows Kogorō the photo of Japanese students who study abroad. Later he joins the new government.

(*) Though Shinsaku studied at Meirinkan, a school for the sons of samurais but was interested in the idea of Shōin. But some poor samurais could not make their sons study at the school. Shunsuke was one of them and went to Shōkason-juku. But he could not enter the room because he was a son of ashigaru so he heard a lecture in the garden. 
(**) Pufferfish should be cooked by a licensed cook in the restaurant that provides the dish of the fish.

西郷どん伊藤俊輔
ITŌ Shunsuke, later ITŌ Hirobumi

[ 2018/10/03 01:30 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

NAKAMURA Hanjirō (KIRINO Toshiaki)

He was born as the third son of NAKAMURA Yoemon in 1338 and later he changed his name to KIRINO Toshiaki. Yoemon was the lowest-class samurai and he was exiled to Tokunoshima and his stipend was taken away. So Hanjirō ans his family made a living by farming.

He accompanied SHIMAZU Hisamitsu to Kyoto in 1862 and guarded Prince Asahiko. He was involved in the Teradaya Incident in the same year and was suspended. But soon after he joined the group of overthrowing the shogunate and was taken into SAIGŌ Kichinosuke's confidence and supported by KOMATSU Tatewaki.

西郷どん3百姓に立ち向かう半次郎 
Hanjirō in his childhood (Rukito Nakamura)

He was called "Hito-kiri Hanjirō" (Hanjirō the killer) at that time but killed only one man who supported the shogunate. On the other hand, he acted as spy and got to know KATSURA Kogorō, SAKAMOTO Ryōma and NAKAOKA Shintarō. He is sais that he accompanied Kichinosuke when he talked with KATSU Kaishū about the surrender of Edo Castle. 

Aftet Taisei Hōkan, the Battle of Toba-Fushimi and the Boshin War occurred. He participated in some battles and finally fought in Aizu. When his side took Wakamatsu Castle in September 1868, he was charged with the handing over of the castle and sympathised with his enemies. 

In the new government, he was promoted to major general of army. However, when Kichinosuke (Takamori) resigned from his public post, he accompanied him and returned to Kagoshima. He helped Kichinosuke establishment Shigakkō, a school for boys and he taught them reclamation that he did in his childhood.

In 1877, the plot to assassinate Kichinosuke by NAKAHARA Nao-o, a police inspector of Tokyo Metropolitan Department was detected. Then he insisted to fight against the government and he was told to procure armaments. This is the Satsuma rebellion (Seinan Sensō).

Though he fought until the end of the rebellion, but Mt. Shiroyama where the soldiers of Kichinosuke barricaded themselves were sieged by their enemy. Kichinosuke committed hara-kiri and he was shot through the forehead. He was 40 years old.

BEPPU Shinsuke who also supported Kichinosuke until his death was his cousin.

During the Boshin War, a member of Shōgi-tai called SUZUKI Hayato cut off his some fingers. Shōgi-tai was defeated by the New government army at the Battle of Ueno. He was said to have loved perfume.

In this series, he was a poor boy but skilled in swordplay. After he grows up, he meets Kichinosuke again and becomes his right-hand man. He is appointed to the first major general of army and cast in his lot with Kichinosuke.

西郷どん中村半次郎
Nakamura Hanjirō, later Kirino Toshiaki (Takurō Ōno)

[ 2018/09/28 23:45 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

IWAKURA Tomomi

He was born as the second son of HOROKAWA Yasuchika, an aristocrat in Kyoto. He was not a typical aristocratic boy and had an unusual ability. He was adopted by another aristocrat IWAKURA Tomoyasu when he was 14 and then attended at the court. As his family was so poor, they provided gamblers have a party at a part of their residence to get the house cut (*). 

In 1854, he became a chamberlain of Emperor Kōmei. However, he opposed the shogunate and the signing the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan. After the assassination of II Naosuke who signed the treaty,  he cooperated with the aristocrats who support Kōbu-gattai movement and encouraged the marriage of Princess Chikako (Kazu-no-miya) with TOKUGAWA Iemochi. However, radical royalism gained strength and he who supported the relationship of the Imperial court and the shogunate was expelled as one of the treacherous subjects by radical aristocrats. He was ordered to confine himself in his house by the emperor also. So he became to live in Iwakura Village.

He was not pardoned even after the Kinmon Incident (**). At that moment, samurais from some domains including SAIGŌ Kichinosuke visited and talked with him about overthrowing the shogunate. In 1866, the emperor passed away and was succeeded by Prince Mutsuhito (Emperor Meiji). After that he was pardoned and returned to political world. Though Tokugawa Yoshinobu had returned the government to the Imperial court already, he asked the Imperial court to proclaim the Restoration of the Imperial rule. Thus the new government was established.

西郷どん岩倉具視
Iwakura Tomomi (SHŌFUKUTEI Tsurube)

In 1868, the shogunate caused the Battle of Toba-Fushimi and then he agreed with fighting against Yoshinobu and the domains that supported him (Boshin War). Kangun, army of the new government defeated the domains and he finally led the new government. He also contributed to transfer the capital from Kyoto to Tokyo and inspected Europe ant the US to negotiate for treaty revision to break off unequal treaties. At that time he felt that it's necessary to lay a railway to develop industries.  

When he returned to Japan, he opposed Seikanron (***) advocated by SAIGŌ Kichinosuke (Takamori) so he was assaulted by a thug (****). And he tried to control the nobles as there was an opposition between aristocrats and former daimyos and their vassals but it ended in failure. Later the problem was solved by establishing the House of Peers (current Sangi-in, the House of Councilors or upper house*****).

Around 1880, he decided to establish a constitution and sent ITO Hirobumi to Europe. On the other hand, he dismissed ŌKUMA Shigenobu, a member of the government who was against him. However, he died of stomach cancer in 1882 It's before Hirobumi's return.

He was the first man in Japan who was given a state funeral.

In this series, he is a man who always begs money when the samurais visit him as a reward for working for them. On the other hand, he is fearless and make the arrangements for the new government after returning to political world. When the new age comes, he is in his element  but later he became to oppose Kichinosuke over Seikanron. 

(*) SANJŌ Sanetomi whose family rank was above that of him made picture cards of karuta (playing cards) as side job.
(**) Radical samurais were expelled from Kyoto after this but he who was expelled by radical people was not pardoned.
(***) The theory of pressing Korea to open the country. Tomomi refuses it as making an enemy of Korea means opposing its suzerain Qing Dynasty. However, unlike other members who supported Seikanron, Kichinosuke insisted that he attempted to become an ambassador and have a top-level conference instead of conquering the country.
(****) The thug was one of so-called fuhei shizoku, former samurais who were dissatisfied with the new government. As they supported Seikanron, they attacked Tomomi who abandoned it.
(*****) Because of this, the throne for the emperor is in Sangi-in only. So the opening ceremony of the National Diet is usually held in the house, not Shūgi-in (House of Representatives). 

西郷どん小判を受け取る岩倉具視
Tomomi (right) receives money from Ōkubo Ichizō

The images are from the official website of "Segodon".

[ 2018/09/24 01:00 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

MATSUDAIRA Katamori

He was born in Takasu domain of Mino (eastern part of current Gifu) as the 6th son of MATSUDAIRA Yoshitatsu, lord of the domain. He was adopted by his uncle Matsudaira Katataka, lord of Aizu domain by getting engaged with his daughter Toshi hime in 1846.

In 1852, he succeeded his adopted father and four years later, he married with Toshi hime. But she dies in 1861 so Teru hime, his sister-in-law controlled ladies-in-waiting and maids in the castle. She once married with OKUDAIRA Masamoto, lord of Nakatsu domain in Buzen (eastern part of current Fukuoka and northern part of current Ōita) but was divorced.

As radical royalists was rampant in Kyoto at that time, he was asked to appoint to Kyoto Shugo-shoku, the position that maintained public order in the city by TOKUGAWA Yoshinobu and Matsudaira Shungaku. Though SAIGŌ Tanomo (*), chief vassal of the domain refused it as the domain got into financial trouble. However, he accepted it obeying the family precept that Aizu domain should be loyal to the shogunate. The precept was left by HOSHINA Masayuki, first lord of the domain.

西郷どん松平容保
Matsudaira Katamori (Shūji Kashiwabara)

Then he went to Kyoto and met Emperor Kōmei in December, 1862. He was one of the central figures of kōbu-gattai movement and exposed the crimes of radical samurais or assassins using Shinsengumi and Kyoto Mimawari-gumi. He guarded Tokugawa Iemochi when he visited Kyoto and helped expelling radical aristocrats from Kyoto in 1863. Thus he gained the confidence of Emperor Komei and was given his letter and poem. At the Kinmon Incident, he commanded his soldiers and Shinsengumi members though he felt sick.

On the other hand, Satuma and Chōshū formed the alliance secretly and the movement of overthrowing the shogunate grew. And Emperor Kōmei who trusted him passed away in December 1866 and he lost his support. On the 14th of November, Yoshinobu restored the government to the crown (Taisei Hōkan) and the position of Kyoto Shugo-shoku was abolished. He tried to persuade Yoshinobu who decided to comply with his enemy. But he was prohibited to enter Edo Castle so he returned to Aizu.

Then the Boshin War began. Some domains in Eastern Japan asked the new government to pardon Aizu domain but Kangun (army of the new government that obtained permission of the emperor) identified the domain as the Emperor's enemy and launched all-out attack against him and his people. While many domains in Eastern Japan were beaten by Kangun with latest style weapons and he surrendered to the army after a month of the battle to hold the castle.

He was pardoned through the good offices of MAEBARA Issei of Chōshū and KIRINO Toshiaki (NAKAMURA Hanjirō) of Satsuma and confined himself in the house in Tokyo. Then he had a son called Kataharu between his concubine Saku and became the lord of Tonami domain, new domain ruled by the Matsudaira clan. Later he was pardoned and became the priest of Nikkō Toshō-gū Shrine in 1880. On the 5th of December in 1893, he died of pneumonia in Tokyo at the age of 59.He is said that he always had a bamboo pipe containing the letter of Emperor Kōmei until his death. 

In this series, he is described as a daimyo and Kyoto Shugo-shoku who is loyal to Hitotsubashi (Tokugawa) Yoshinobu and asks him about how to deal with the radical samurais from Chōshū domain. And when Satsuma domain came to the fore after Taisei Hōkan, he often advises Yoshinobu about the movement of Satsuma to support him.

(*) He is said to have been a distant cousin of SAIGŌ Kichinosuke, who fought against his domain in the Boshin War. Toshiyuki Nishida who narrates "Segodon" plays the role of Tanomo in "Yae no Sakura" and acts Kichinosuke in "Tobu ga Gotoku".

西郷どん松平容保2
Katamori who tells Tokugawa Yoshinobu about the movement of Satsuma domain

The images are from the official website of "Segodon".

[ 2018/09/23 00:30 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)

KATSU Kaishū

KATSU Kaishū (Yasuyoshi*) was a vassal of the Tokugawa shogunate and politician at the end of Edo period and Meiji period. He was awared the title of count later and was called Rintarō in his childhood.

He was born in 1823 and brought up in his relative's houses in his childhood because the stipend of his father Kokichi was very small. Because of the circumstances, he spoke in beranme-e, the speech used by the common people in eastern Edo or Tokyo. When he was nine, he was attacked by a stray dog on his way to home from school. He was badly wounded in the private parts but luckily recovered in about two months.

Then he learned swordsmanship and Dutch language. As he was in poverty, he made two copies of  Doeff-Halma Dictionary (Dutch-Japanese dictionary) and sold one of them to earn money. He then established a school in Tamachi and taught his pupils Dutch and strategy. After the visit of Commodore Perry's squadron, he proposed the plan of strengthening coastal defense to ABE Masahiro and became a vice-principal of a naval training centre in Nagasaki. He visited Satsuma at that time and became to know SHIMAZU Nariakira each other.

In 1860, he traveled to the US as a member of the mission to exchange instruments of ratification of the treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan. They used Kanrin-maru for the trip and he discovered various things in the US that are quite different from those in Japan. After returning to Japan, he asked Tokugawa Iemochi to establish a naval training centre in Kobe and made efforts to strengthen the navy of the shogunate and in the centre. He taught many pupils including SAKAMOTO Ryoma in his own school in the centre. 

In 1864, he was appointed to gunkan-bugyo, a naval magistrate. But in the same year, his comrade and brother-in-law (husband of his younger sister) SAKUMA Shozan, who was known to agree with opening the country was killed by radical royalists in Kyoto. Besides one of his pupils participated in the Kinmon Incident to support Chōshū. In addition, his idea became to be unable to get along with that of the shogunate.

西郷どん26西郷と出会う勝
Katsu Kaishū (left) meets Saigō Kichinosuke in Kyoto

At last the centre in Kobe was forced to close down and he met SAIGO Kichinosuke for the first time then. Soon after he was told to be confined in his house and read many books in the interval. After the second subjugation of Chōshū in 1866, he was told to meditate between the shogunate and Choshu but his negotiation floundered. As Tokugawa Yoshinobu finally stopped the war by obtaining the Imperial sanction, he got very angry and returned to Edo.

The Battle of Toba-Fushimi occured after the Taisei Hōkan in 1867 and the Shogunate Army was defeated in it. Then Kan-gun, the force mainly composed of the soldiers from Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa started marching to Edo. So he was ordered to be in charge of the Tokugawa Army and then he sent YAMAOKA Tesshū, vassal of the shogunate to Saigō Kichinosuke to negotiate about the peaceful opening of Edo Castle with him. Needless to say, Tenshō-in (Atsu hime) and Kazu-no-miya (Princess Chikako) implored to open the castle peacefully.

After the Meiji Restoration, he held various posts including privy councilor successively and made efforts to restore the reputation of Saigo Kichinosuke (Takamori) who was regarded as rebel after the Satsuma Rebellion. He made peace with Tokugawa Yoshinobu whom he opposed in 1892 by adopting Yoshinobu's son as heir of the Katsu family. He praised the Meiji Constitution and was against Sino-Japanese war (**). 

He was said to have felt offended at so-called blood connection and spoke some high ranking vassals of the shogunate as rojū with sarcasm. So he was disliked by some people.

He died in January, 1899. After he took a bath, he went to the lavatory and then fell down. His told his maid to bring him ginger tea but as it was a state of emergency, she brought him brandy instead. He drunk it and had cerebral hemorrhage and died at the age of 75. His last words were "kore de oshimai" (this is the end). 

He had many and lovers so had many children but it is said there were no discord among them. 

In this series, he is described as a strong hearted man and says his mind even to HITOTSYBASHI Yoshinobu. When he meets Kichinosuke in Osaka, he tells him that the end of the shogunate is near.

(*) His real name was Yasuyoshi. Kaishū was his pen name and was after the writing by Sakuma Shōzan.
(**) He hoped to cooperate with Qing dynasty but it was thought to have been difficult as Qing was invaded by many countries.

The image shows Ken-ichi Endo as Katsu Kaishū
(From the official website of "Segodon")

西郷どん勝海舟
[ 2018/09/16 23:30 ] Taiga Drama Sego-don | TB(-) | CM(0)
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aK

Author:aK
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